Essentials-of-Psychiatric-Mental-Health-Nursing-Concepts-of-Care-in-Evidence-Based-Practice-7th-Edit. 952 Pages. Essentials of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing Everything you need to succeed ... in c...
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Essentials-of-Psychiatric-Mental-Health-Nursing-Concepts-of-Care-in-Evidence-Based-Practice-7th-Edit. Essentials of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing Everything you need to succeed ... in class, in clinical, on exams and on the NCLEX Introduction In recent years, a greater emphasis has been placed on the study of the organic basis for psychiatric illness. This "neuroscientific revolution," with its focus on the biological basis of behavior, has led to several mental illnesses now being considered as physical disorders resulting from malfunctions and / or malformations of the brain. That some behaviors and psychiatric illnesses can be traced to biological causes does not imply that psychosocial and sociocultural influences are totally discounted. For example, there is evidence that psychologi,cal interventions have an influence on brain activity that is similar to psychopharmacologic intervention (Furmark et al., 2002), and evidence exists that lifestyle choices, such as marijuana use, can precipitate mental illness (psychosis) in individuals with genetic vulnerability (NIH, 2015). Ongoing research will build a better understanding of the complex interplay of neural activities within the brain and in interaction with one's environment. The systems of biology, psychology, and sociology are not mutually exclusive-they are interacting systems. This interaction is clearly indicated by the fact that individuals experience biological changes in response to various environmental events. Indeed, one or several of these systems may, at various times, explain behavioral phenomena. This chapter focuses on the role of neurophysiological, neurochemical, genetic, and endocrine influences on psychiatric illness. An introduction to psychopharmacology is included (discussed in more detail in the following chapter), and various diagnostic procedures used to detect alteration in biological function that may contribute to psychiatric illness are identified. The implications for psychiatric mental health nursing are discussed. CORE CONCEPT Psychobiology The study of the biological foundations of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes. The Nervous System: An Anatomical Review The Brain The brain has three major divisions subdivided into six major parts: 1. Forebrain a. Cerebrum b. Diencephalon 2. Midbrain a. Mesencephalon 3. Hindbrain a. Pons b. Medulla c. Cerebellum Each of these structures is discussed individually. A summary is presented in Table 2-1. Cerebrum The cerebrum consists of a right and left hemisphere and constitutes the largest part of the human brain. The right and left hemispheres are connected by a deep groove, which houses a ba