# PHL 320 Week 3 Apply: Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

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# PHL 320 Week 3 Apply: Inductive and Deductive Reasoning (2019 New)

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Translating Claims into Standard Form 1

Translate each of the following into a standard-form claim. Make sure that each answer follows the exact form of an A-, E-, I-, or O-claim and that each term you use is a noun or noun phrase that refers to a class of things. Remember that you’re trying to produce a claim that’s equivalent to the one given; it doesn’t matter whether the given claim is actually true.

Not every lizard is a salamander.

Multiple Choice

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Some lizards are not salamanders.

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Not every salamander is a lizard.

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Some salamanders are not lizards.

Only reptiles can be lizards.

Multiple Choice

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All reptiles are lizards.

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All lizards are reptiles.

Snakes are the only members of the suborder Ophidia.

Multiple Choice

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All snakes are members of the suborder Ophidia.

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Some snakes are not members of the suborder Ophidia.

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All members of the suborder Ophidia are snakes.

The only members of the suborder Ophidia are snakes.

Multiple Choice

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All snakes are members of the suborder Ophidia.

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All members of the suborder Ophidia are snakes.

Symbolizing Arguments using "If...Then..." and "not-…" (1)

Madderly wins the decision, provided that the referee scores the fight in Madderly’s favor.

The referee did score the fight in favor of Madderly.

Therefore, Madderly wins the decision.R = Referee scores the fight in Madderly’s favor

M = Madderly wins the decision.

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Symbolizing Arguments using "If...Then..." and "not-…"

Symbolize the following arguments using “if . . . then . . .” and “not- . . .” statements in place of the special symbols → and  ~. (Note: Do not enter any periods in your response.)

Symbolizing Arguments using "If...Then..." and "not-…" (2)

The generator works.

The generator works only if the polarity of the circuit has been reversed.

The polarity of the circuit has been reversed.G = The generator works.

P = Polarity has been reversed.

Required information

Symbolizing Arguments using "If...Then..." and "not-…"

Symbolize the following arguments using “if . . . then . . .” and “not- . . .” statements in place of the special symbols → and  ~. (Note: Do not enter any periods in your response.)

Symbolizing Arguments using "If...Then..." and "not-…" (3)

Failure to melt at 2,600 degrees is sufficient for determining that this item is not made of steel.

The item failed to melt at 2,600 degrees.

The item is not made of steel.F = The item fails to melt at 2600 degrees.

S = The item is made of steel.

Required information

Symbolizing Arguments using "If...Then..." and "not-…"

Symbolize the following arguments using “if . . . then . . .” and “not- . . .” statements in place of the special symbols → and  ~. (Note: Do not enter any periods in your response.)

Symbolizing Arguments using "If...Then..." and "not-…" (4)

If the new generator will work, then the polarity of the circuit has been reversed.

But the polarity of the circuit has not been reversed.

The new generator will not work.G = New generator will work.

P = Polarity has been reversed.

Providing Causal Hypotheses to Explain Findings 1

Can mere reading of articles about dieting cause teenage girls to resort to extreme weight-loss measures? According to a study published in the journal Pediatrics (reported by Carla K. Johnson of the Associated Press in January 2007), the answer might well be yes. In the study, female middle-school students were interviewed in 1999 and again in 2004, and their heights and weights were measured. Those in the first interview who said they frequently read magazine articles about dieting were more likely than those who said they never read such articles to report in the second survey that they indulged in extreme weight-loss measures like vomiting and taking laxatives. The effect was present whether or not the girls were overweight or considered their weight important when they started reading the articles, the researchers said.

Propose two explanations for the findings that seem likely or possible.

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