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Maida - Chapter 01

Maida - Chapter 01 MaidaSustainability_01
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Where, When, for Whom? Past, Present, and Future of a Local Rural Population in a Protected Natural Area (Guaraqueçaba, Brazil)

A rethinking of development models has occurred during the latter half of the twentieth century. For the most part, this rethinking has been critical of purely economic models that only emphasize growth and do not take into account the needs and aspirations of the affected population and risks to the natural environment. Perroux's works (1961), those of the "Club of Rome" (Beckerman 1972; ONU/EPHE 1972) and, lately, Sachs' works (1990) bear witness to this shift in thinking. In the 1990s, the concept of sustainable development came to the forefront. The World Conservation Union (IUCN) first used this notion in its global strategy of conservation (Jacobs and Munro 1987). It was then taken up again and developed by the Brundtland Report (WCED 1987). Despite the successes of the 1992 World Conference on Environment, sustainable development still remains rather blurred and is beset by many differences of interpretation. It is marked by contradictions (Pezzey 1989). No fewer than sixty different definitions have been noted by Latouche (1995). From a development perspective, it integrates a number of dimensions that were not initially included: the acknowledgment that available resources are not infinite, the recognition of the value of biodiversity, the demand for social equity, and a concern for long-term and intergenerational solidarity. It is easy to reach agreement on some statements of principle, but consensus can hardly be found when looking for concrete definitions, identification of priority actions, and the formulation of criteria necessary for evaluating development policy. Vagueness remains, particularly with regard to scientific concepts that could support the notion of sustainability. Among others, different French authors (Dubois and Mahieu 2002; Elame 2001; Jollivet 2001, Martin 2002) have already started the necessary work of critical reflection.

SustainabilityWhere, When, for Whom? Past, Present, and Future of a Local Rural Population in a Protected Natural Area (Guaraqueçaba, Brazil)Claude Raynaut, Magda Zanoni, Angela Ferreira, and Paulo LanaA rethinking of development models has occu
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