Quataert - Chapter03 | eBooks | Non-Fiction

Quataert - Chapter03

Quataert - Chapter03 QuataertMiners_03 Instant Download Price
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The work force of the coalfield took shape in the 1840s in the form of free labor that was ethnically homogenous and displayed little task differentiation. Over the decades, its character changed in nearly every possible way. Its numbers increased from perhaps several hundred during the 1840s to 6,000 unskilled workers and hewers who annually were employed in the mid 1890s. By World War I, at least 8-10,000 unskilled workers annually labored, plus several thousand uncounted, skilled above- and belowground workers. When the original reliance on free labor failed to provide sufficient workers, the Ottoman state erected a corvée-style labor system to supply the mines, building on centuries-old imperial practices of dragooning labor whenever necessary to fill its needs. Thus, after 1867, unfree labor from surrounding communities became commonplace, indeed predominant, in the mine labor force, working on a semi-monthly rotation with equal amounts of time in village and mine. But a free labor force persisted alongside these compulsory workers, especially in the aboveground jobs. Introduction The work force of the coalfield took shape in the 1840s in the form of free labor that was ethnically homogenous and displayed little task differentiation. Over the decades, its character changed in nearly every possible way. Its n
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