Feldman and Seibel - Chapter 08
Division of labor in complex organizations appears in a horizontal and a
vertical dimension. The vertical axis is organized along hierarchical lines
while the horizontal axis is based on cooperation. This distinction remains
blurry, however, as is obvious when subordinate individuals or units do not
cooperate and enforcement of cooperation by hierarchal means is counterproductive.
By the same token, cooperation is rarely non-hierarchical in the
pure sense since working together may be stimulated by hidden hierarchies
and competition for relative gains in terms of resources and power.