Black - Chapter 10
When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, Russia and the other newly
independent states had no legislative or institutional framework for
monitoring or managing large migrational flows, still less 'forced'
migrations and refugee streams. During the Soviet period 'immigration'
into the USSR had been virtually nonexistent and migration between
constituent members of the Union ('interrepublican migration') was
treated largely as an issue of rational economic planning.1 In the
post-Soviet period, however, Russia has found it necessary to develop
rapidly legislative and executive structures to manage a range of
population movements. More than one hundred migrational flows have been
identified in the post-Soviet space, ranging from the organised and
planned withdrawal of Russian military personnel from Eastern Europe
and some of the Newly Independent States to the flight from ethnic and
military conflict in many former republics (Tajikistan, Uzbekistan,
Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia) and within the Russian
Federation itself (North Osetia, Chechnia). UNHCR estimates that there
are currently nine million displaced people on the territory of the
former Soviet Union.