1.) Illustrate the retention curve and how the level and nature of learner participation affects the percentage of information retained over time. Successful communication occurs when the receiver’s understanding of the message is the same as the sender’s intent Common management/leadership errors include micromanaging and defending decisions. Administrative services, which are usually centralized, include recruitment and training, records and communications, planning and research, and technical services. The hardest promotional move in law enforcement is the move from patrol officer to first-line supervisor. The two most influential positions in a law enforcement agency are the chief and the field supervisor or sergeant. Mission statements are best developed by an individual such as the chief of police. The flywheel challenge encourages all within an organization to focus on the mission statement. Law enforcement agencies are not facing the need for change to meet the competition of private policing because private policing in not available everywhere. Leadership styles include autocratic; consultative, democratic or participative; and laissez-faire. Specialization can enhance a department’s effectiveness and efficiency, but overspecialization can impede the organizational purpose One way to enhance communication is to develop a tendency to say what you think others want to hear. Problem solving requires police to group incidents as a way to identify underlying causes of problems in the community. True leaders are not intimidated by outstanding team members.